All the above being factors that affect the production of buildings, and which ultimately lead to uncertainty and user dissatisfaction with the outturn product. Expanding the work of Royston, statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and management consultant W Edwards Deming. Edwards Deming with the experience of several years troubleshooting projects in post second world war Japan, observed that the failure of a project was usually the product of a management process failure, rather than a failure of execution or the competence of the operatives implementing it. He noted that managers of the failed projects also tended to diagnose the causes of their inability by incorrectly attributing the reasons to technical non-compliance or operative incompetence. In most cases, Deming concluded, the failure had its origins in the generation, management and care taken over information quality arriving or leaving the design table, and usually had little to do with the execution of the planned procedure at site level.